Protasis Legal Definition

The grammatical term used to represent the If clause is called protasis. Wallace strongly opposes this practice, claiming that it translates εἰ and says more than εἰ actually says (pp. 692ff.). Greek has a word for „since“, it is not known whether the speaker would „actually confirm the truth of the protasis“, and sometimes this construction is used with rhetorical force that is suppressed by „since“. Of course, this does not mean that protasis is actually true. It could be a lie, or it just couldn`t be true. In fact, the conditional sentence of the second class („condition contrary to the fact“ it is also called) is identical in form to the first (except that the verb in the protasis is elapsed) and the protasis is clearly false. „If you believe Moses, you will believe me, for he wrote about me“ (Jn 5:46). Obviously, they don`t believe Moses. Apodosis (what would I do) is omitted and only protasis is expressed. What protasis would contraction become a natural and necessary apodosis for such different patterns? All of the above conditional theorems are examples of protasis. „Protasis.“ Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Retrieved 27 November 2022.

Conditional sentences are phrases that express something that depends on something else, such as „If it rains, the picnic will be cancelled.“ They are so called because the effect of the main sentence of the sentence depends on the dependent clause. A complete condition therefore contains two clauses: the dependent sentence expressing the condition, called antecedent (or protasis); and the main sentence expressing the consequence is called the consequence (or apodose). [1] I have often heard that the εἰ of protasis should be translated as „since“ and not „if“, since protasis is assumed to be true. There are certainly verses in which the use of „if“ adds an apparent element to the question that is not appropriate for what is being said. Satan says, „If you are the Son of God [εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ], tell this stone to become bread“ (Luke 4:3). There was no doubt in Satan`s mind as to who Jesus was. It is the custom of lovers to abuse the gorgiac figures of Protasis and Exordium. First-class conditional sentences are formed with a protasis (the „if“ theorem) with εἰ and the indicative (arbitrary time). Its basic meaning is to say that if this and that is true (and we will accept the truth of protasis for the sake of argument), then this and that will happen.

Finally from the Latin protasis, from the ancient Greek πρότασις (prótasis). This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by explaining the origins of this term. From the late Latin protasis, from the Ancient Greek πρότασις (prótasis), from προτείνω (proteínō, „to bring, offering, proposing“), from πρό (pró) + τείνω (teínō, „to stretch“). As G. M. assured, it unfolded exactly as the opening act of a play – the Protasis – was supposed to do. It is a complex protasis, as Mr Lysidas said. Cookie conditions (also called relevance or speech act conditions) are conditions in which the truth of the sequence does not depend on the truth of the precursor. Here is a rhetorically powerful triad of confessions that Paul calls on the Corinthians to confirm (though the second is reversed). Conditional sentences in Latin are traditionally divided into three categories based on grammatical structure.

These examples differ in form and meaning. The indicative example uses the present „is“ both in its precursor and in its sequence, while the counterfactual example uses the past „was“ in the previous and the modal „would be“ in the sequence. [2] The counterfactual example indicates that the speaker thinks it is not raining in New York, while the indicative example suggests that the speaker is agnostic about this possibility. In French, the conjunction corresponding to „si“ is si. The use of tenses is very similar to English: each grammatical expression has different nouns. Some are more common, while others are not as commonly spoken or known. Protasis and apodosis is also an example of two of these words. If you`re a grammar geek, then you`ll probably know what they mean.

I came across an excellent example of the latter argument. If you take 1 Corinthians 15:12 out of context, it seems to be a candidate for „since.“ „Now, if Christ is proclaimed to be raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead?“ There is no doubt that „Christ is proclaimed to be raised from the dead,“ so why not translate „since Christ rose from the dead“? In Slavic languages such as Russian, sentences in conditional sentences usually appear in their natural tense (future for future reference, etc.). However, for counterfactual facts, a conditional/subjunctive marker such as Russian бы par usually appears in conditional and subsequent sentences, which usually accompanies the past tense of the verb. Under metalinguistic conditions, the previous one qualifies the use of a term. For example, in the following example, the speaker unconditionally stated that he had seen the person in question, whether or not she should be called her ex-husband. [13] There are several ways to classify conditional penalties. Many of these categories are visible in all languages. From Ancient Greek πρότασις (prótasis).

In the example above, the if clause, which represents the condition that reads: „If he had time“. A conditional sentence that expresses implication (also known as a factual conditional sentence) essentially states that if one fact is true, so is another. (If the sentence is not a declarative sentence, the consequence can be expressed as a command or question, rather than a statement.) Facts are usually given in the appropriate grammatical tense; There are usually no special times or mood patterns for this type of conditional sentence. Such phrases can be used to express certainty, a universal statement, a law of science, etc. (in these cases, si can often be replaced by when): In English, a conditional sentence is a sentence composed of two clauses, the if clause and the main clause. The if clause indicates the condition and the other clause shows the consequences. Languages use a variety of grammatical forms and constructs in conditional sentences. The forms of verbs used in the foreword and afterword are often subject to special rules regarding their tense, appearance and mood. Many languages have a special type of verb form called conditional agreement – largely equivalent to the English meaning „would (do something)“ – to be used in certain types of conditional sentences.